Urinary incontinence can occur during exertion (coughing, violent sneezing, fits of laughter, running or jumping, carrying a heavy load), if this causes pressure inside the bladder. This type of incontinence affects mainly women.
- emotion (e.g. fear or stress);
- a urinary or vaginal infection;
- difficulty in sensing the need to urinate (because of neurological disease or ageing), so that it is felt too late or not strongly enough;
- taking certain drugs (drugs for hypertension, diuretics, alpha and beta blockers, drugs for anxiety etc.).
The term “urinary retention” means that your bladder fills up but you don’t feel you need to urinate or you can’t manage to urinate. Often, urination happens because your bladder overflows and you only pass the excess amount. The term “dysuria” is used if you find urination difficult or painful.
Apart from being painful, urinary retention is also likely to cause infection. It should therefore be treated very quickly.
- a “lazy” bladder that doesn’t contract sufficiently;
- difficulty in sensing the need to urinate because of neurological disease;
- an obstacle that partly or completely blocks the urethra, such as a tumour or bladder stone.
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